Game creators always use prefabricated models as non-player characters (NPCs) to create an atmosphere for game scenes. However, players are likely to see different NPCs with the same 3D models. We introduced a neural network, Gaussian mixture models, a Bayesian network to control their facial appearances, colors of hair and clothes, and outfits, respectively. It is demonstrated that the proposed approach can maintain the variety and stability of the generated characters.

More details in [J-1].

Graphical Abstract


NameAffiliationWeb site
Ruizhe LiKeio University
Ryo OjiKeio University
Masanori NakayamaKeio University



  1. Ruizhe Li, Ryo Oji, Issei Fujishiro: “Controllable automatic generation of non-player crowd in 3D anime style,” Computer Animation and Virtual Worlds, No. e2047, April 2022 [doi: 10.1002/cav.2047].

International conferences/symposiums

  1. Ruizhe LiMasanori NakayamaIssei Fujishiro, “Automatic generation of 3D natural anime-like non-player characters with machine learning,” 2020 International Conference on Cyberworlds, pp. 110—116, Caen, France, September 29—October 1, 2020 [doi: 10.1109/CW49994.2020.00023].


  1. Grant-in-Aid for Challenging Research (Pioneering): 19H05576 (2019―2021)
  2. Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A): 17H00737 (2019―2021)

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