Currently, there are increasing opportunities to experience 3D images in video games and at amusement facilities. However, many stereoscopic video experiences use head-mounted displays (HMDs) and huge devices such as CAVE. There are still not many that can be experienced on general devices such as TVs and personal computers.

An example of an optical illusion that can let people feel three-dimensional effect is 3D trick art using a sketchbook. The picture shown below is the work of Hideyuki Nagai (official website).To apply this illusion, we can use two displays arranged in an L shape to display a stereoscopic image. 

図1 永井秀幸さんのトリックアート作品

According to the movement of the user, the stereoscopic image can be presented by dynamically displaying the shadow on displays arranged in L shape. This research is introduced on this site(Web).


Naked-Eye 3D Imaging and SAM(Smart Ambient Media)

The user’s line of sight is taken as input and the video is output to displays arranged in L shape. This research holds the core concept of SAM because it has the flow of Human-in-the-Loop.


NameAffiliationWeb site
Keita TokunagaKeio University
Genki NagasawaKeio University
Takeru IsakaKeio University



  1. Keita TokunagaGenki Nagasawa, Issei Fujishiro: “Cyclopean Eye: Pinpointing Anamorphosis for Naked-Eye 3D Imaging with Orthogonally Arranged Multiple Display Monitors,” The Journal of the Institute of Image Electronics Engineers of Japan, Vol. 50, No. 4, pp. 550―557, October, 2021 (in Japanese). (URL).
  2. Takeru Isaka, Issei Fujishiro: “Naked-eye 3D imaging through optical illusion
    using L-shaped display surfaces,” The Journal of the Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers, Vol. 70, No. 6, pp. J142―J145, May, 2016 (in Japanese).(Republished as a research highlight (No. 12), Vol. 73, No. 1, pp. J108―J112, January 2019) [doi: 10.3169/itej.70.J142].


  1. Keita Tokunaga, Issei Fujishiro: “Verification of Frame-break Effect for Naked-Eye 3D Imaging with Orthogonally Arranged Multiple Display Monitors,” in Proceedings of SIG Technical Reports, Vol. 2022–CG–187, No. 5, September 14, 2022 (in Japanese).
  2. Issei Fujishiro: “The Cyclopean Eye: Pinpointed Anamorphosis for Personal Stereoscopic Views,” Keynote for the 2021 international conference on Cyberworlds, September 29, 2021.(URL)


  1. Issei Fujishiro: “Academic Meets Industry No. 007 Keio Univ. Faculty of Science and Technology Fujishiro LAB RESEARCH1:Anamorphosis for Naked-Eye 3D,” CGWORLD, Vol.247, p.126, February 9, 2019.[Web:Decenber 26, 2019.]


  1. Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A): 20K20481 (2019-)
  2. Grant-in-Aid for Challengeing Exploratory Research:15K12034 (2015-2017)
  3. Microsoft Research Asia Collaborative Research 2018 (URL) (2018-)

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